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Expression (linguistics)

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Not to be confused with inflection,  tone (linguistics), or pitch accent. In linguistics,  intonation is deviation of pitch while speaking which is not used to distinguish words. It contrasts with tone, in which pitch variation does distinguish words. Timbre,  rhythm, and stress are the three main elements of linguistic prosody. Intonation habits in some different languages, such as Swedish and Swiss German, can lead to conspicuous variances in frequency, giving conversation a sing-song quality.[1] Fluctuations in pitch possibly involve a rising frequency or a falling pitch. Intonation is found in every language and even in tonal languages, but the realization and function happen to be seemingly several. It is used in nontonal languages to add attitudes to phrases (attitudinal function) and to distinguish between wh-questions,  yes-no questions, declarative statements, orders, requests, and so forth Intonation could also be used for discourse analysis exactly where new info is realized by means of intonation. It can also be employed for emphatic/contrastive functions. All languages use presentation pragmatically since intonation — for instance intended for emphasis, to convey surprise or irony, or to present a question.  Tonal languages such asChinese and Hausa use pitch intended for distinguishing words in addition to providing intonation. Generally speaking, the next intonations happen to be distinguished: * Rising Intonation means the presentation of the words rises more than time�[↗]; * Falling Intonation means the pitch falls with time�[↘]; 5. Dipping Intonation falls and then rises�[↘↗];

2. Peaking Intonation rises and then falls�[↗↘].

People that have congenital amusia show impaired ability to discriminate, identify and imitate the intonation of the final words in content.[2] Contents �[hide]� 5. 1 Transcription * 2 Uses of intonation * 3 Intonation in English 2. 4 Intonation in French * 4. 1 Summary * four. 2 Detail 2. 4. 2 . 1 Continuation pattern * 4. 2 . 2 Finality pattern 5. 4. 2 . 3 Yes/no pattern * some. 2 . 4 Information question routine * 5 Intonation in Mandarin Chinese * 6 Languages with falling intonation in inquiries * 7 See also 2. 8 References| -------------------------------------------------


In the International Phonetic Alphabet,  global rising and slipping intonation will be marked which has a diagonal arrow rising left-to-right�[↗] and falling left-to-right�[↘], correspondingly. These could possibly be written as part of a syllable, or separated with a space when they include a broader scope: He found this on the street?

hiː ˈfaʊnd ɪt

Here the rising pitch on street indicates that the issue hinges on that word, on where he identified it, not whether this individual found this. Yes, he found it on the street.

↘ˈjɛs ‖ hi ˈfaʊnd ɪt How do you ever before escape?

ə↘ˈˈskeɪp ‖

Here, as is common with wh- questions, there is also a rising expression on the query word, and a slipping intonation at the end of the problem. More detailed transcription systems for intonation have also been developed, this kind of as ToBI (Tones and Break Indices),  RaP (Rhythm and Pitch), and INTSINT�[3]. -------------------------------------------------

[edit]Uses of intonation

The uses of intonation could be divided into 6 categories:[4]: ch. six * educational: for example , in English I saw a ↘man in the garden answers " Whom would you see? " or " What happened? ", while I ↘saw a man in the garden answers " Did heard a man inside the garden? " * grammatical: for example , in English a rising presentation turns an argument into a yes-no question, since in He's going ↗home?  This use of timbre to express grammatical mood is the primary grammatical use (though whether...


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